Stein begins by identifying testing as a focus point in education (evidence: nothing else gets as much news coverage) because:
but also these measures can be used to combat injustice, by identifiying failings of the system, and measuring the efficacy of their remidies.
Stein identifies this as a core narrative around testing:
through the use of objective measurement we can better administer justice as well as make the educational system more scientific. This book is, in part, an argument that this idea is important and correct. However, this book is also an argument that the same objective tests that are necessary for administering justice can become instru- ments of injustice when they are misused.
The core idea here is that testing is a powerful tool, but it has outcomes directly related to it's design not just the intent of how it's wielded.